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Embryonic Stem Cells/Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012
Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press
Volume 30, Issue 10, pages 2152–2163, October 2012
How to Cite
Esmailpour, T. and Huang, T. (2012), TBX3 Promotes Human Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation and Neuroepithelial Differentiation in a Differentiation Stage-dependent Manner. STEM CELLS, 30: 2152–2163. doi: 10.1002/stem.1187
Author contributions: T.E.: conception and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript writing, and final approval of manuscript; T.H.: conception and design, financial support, provision of study material, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript writing, and final approval of manuscript.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
First published online in STEM CELLSEXPRESS August 2, 2012.
- Issue published online: 20 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 2 AUG 2012 10:50AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 20 FEB 2012
- National Cancer Institute. Grant Numbers: R01CA121876, R01CA121876
- Human embryonic stem cells;
T-box 3 (Tbx3) is a member of the T-box family of genes. Mutations that result in the haploinsufficiency of TBX3 cause ulnar mammary syndrome in humans characterized by mammary gland hypoplasia as well as other congenital defects. In mice, homozygous mutations are embryonic lethal, suggesting that Tbx3 is essential for embryo development. Studies in mice have shown that Tbx3 is essential in the maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and in their differentiation into extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn). The role TBX3 plays in regulating human ESCs (hESCs) has not been explored. Since mouse and hESCs are known to represent distinct pluripotent states, it is important to address the role of TBX3 in hESC self-renewal and differentiation. Using overexpression and knockdown strategies, we found that TBX3 overexpression promotes hESC proliferation possibly by repressing the expression of both NFκBIB and p14ARF, known cell cycle regulators. During differentiation, TBX3 knockdown resulted in decreased neural rosette formation and in decreased expression of neuroepithelial and neuroectoderm markers (PAX6, LHX2, FOXG1, and RAX). Taken together, our data suggest a role for TBX3 in hESC proliferation and reveal an unrecognized novel role of TBX3 in promoting neuroepithelial differentiation. Our results suggest that TBX3 plays distinct roles in regulating self-renewal and differentiation in both hESCs and mouse ESCs. STEM Cells2012;30:2152–2163