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Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.

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sc-12-0509_sm_SupplData.pdf92KSUPPORTING INFORMATION
sc-12-0509_sm_SupplFigure1.pdf882KFigure S1. Isolation of mPDC: embedding of epiphyses and enzymatic digest. (A-C): H&Estained sections showing murine tibias before digest (A), after enzymatic digest (B) and after embedding of the epiphyses in low melting point agarose and enzymatic digest (C). Black arrows indicate remaining tissue from the joint and tendon present on the epiphysis. (A1-C1): Magnification of the boxed areas in A-C showing release of perichondrial cells after enzymatic digest, which was precluded when epiphyses were first embedded in agarose (black arrow). (A2-C2): H&E-stained sections showing the periosteal surface of the diaphysis (black arrow) of the tibia before digest (A2) or after enzymatic digest without (B2) or with (C2) epiphyses embedded in low melting point agarose. Scale bars = 500μm in A, B, C; 200μm in A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2. Abbreviations: H&E: hematoxylin and eosin.
sc-12-0509_sm_SupplFigure2.pdf337KFigure S2. mPDC stabilize networks formed by endothelial cells in vitro. (A, B): CMFDAlabeled mPDC were co-cultured with CM-DiI-labeled HUVEC or hBOEC on MatrigelTM for 24h. Brightfield (A) and fluorescent (B) microscopic analysis of cultures of endothelial cells alone (left), together with mPDC (middle) or of mPDC alone (right) showing formation of robust pseudovascular networks in the co-cultures, with mPDC localized predominantly at the outside of the structures, around the endothelial cells. Scale bar = 200μm. Abbreviations: hBOEC: human blood outgrowth endothelial cells; HUVEC: human umbilical vein endothelial cells; mPDC: murine periosteum-derived cells.
sc-12-0509_sm_SupplFigure3.pdf366KFigure S3. Co-implantation of mPDC and HUVEC results in the formation of mature, perfused blood vessels. (A-B): In vivo co-implantation of mPDC and HUVEC in a 60:40 ratio in collagen gels for 7 days. H&E-stained sections (A) showing the presence of small (A1, A1′) and large (A2, A2′) blood vessels filled with red blood cells, confirming their connection to the host vasculature. Immunohistochemical staining of HUVEC with UEA-lectin in combination with green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes (B) indicates that the blood vessels formed by the implanted HUVEC are functional. The section was counterstained with Hoechst to visualize cell nuclei. Scale bars = 500μm in A; 100μm in A1; 50μm in A1′, A2, B; 20μm in A2′. Abbreviations: H&E: hematoxylin and eosin, HUVEC: human umbilical vein endothelial cells; mPDC: murine periosteum-derived cells; UEA-lectin: Ulex europaeus agglutinin-lectin.
sc-12-0509_sm_SupplTable1.pdf77KSupplementary Table 1
sc-12-0509_sm_SupplTable2.pdf65KSupplementary Table 2
sc-12-0509_sm_SupplTable3.pdf31KSupplementary Table 3

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