Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.

sc-12-0859_sm_SupplData.pdf88KSupplementary Data
sc-12-0859_sm_SupplFigure1.pdf549KSupplementary Fig. S1 EDS mapping for elemental P and Ca (pixels highlighted in blue) in grafted areas at 4 weeks after transplantation.
sc-12-0859_sm_SupplFigure2.pdf444KSupplementary Fig. S2 (A) FACS analysis data of BMMSCs (B, C) Real Time RT-PCR results B; ALP expression, C; Runx2 expression in control and induction medium. (D) Cell morphology of BMMSCs. (E) Alizarin red staining of BMMSCs. (F) Von Kossa staining of BMMSCs.
sc-12-0859_sm_SupplFigure3.tif727KSupplementary Fig. S3 Safety evaluations and characterization of transplanted BMMSCs. (A-D) Examination for mycoplasma contamination using indirect DNA staining and nested PCR. (A) The negative control (Vero cells). (B) Positive control (mycoplasma infected NCC-IT-A3 cells). Cultured BMMSCs with Vero cells showed no fluorescence except the cell nuclei (C), whereas negative controls showed small dots of fluorescence in the surrounding medium and on the culture dish. In addition, no positive bands were detected in the BMMSCs culture supernatant. (D) Sample and PCR analysis, lane 5 is the negative control (Vero cells), lane 6 is BMMSCs, and lane 7 is the positive control (mycoplasma infected NCC-IT-A3 cells). Lanes 1, 3, 4, 8 are blank. (E, F) Karyotype analysis of cultured BMMSCs. The primary culture BMMSCs (E) and pre-transplantation BMMSCs (F).
sc-12-0859_sm_SupplFigure4.pdf371KSupplementary Fig. S4 Tumorigenesis test Arrows show granulation tissue in sample (A, D), lymphocyte invasion in negative control (B, E), asterisk show tumor invasion in positive control (C, F).
sc-12-0859_sm_SupplVideo1.mov2441KSupplementary Video 1
sc-12-0859_sm_SupplVideo2.mov2706KSupplementary Video 2
sc-12-0859_sm_SupplVideo3.mov1389KSupplementary Video 3

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