• Immunoregulation;
  • Mesenchymal stem cells;
  • Periodontal ligament stem cells;
  • Periodontitis;
  • B lymphocyte;
  • Humoral immunity;
  • Programmed cell death protein 1


Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have provided novel cell sources for tooth and periodontal tissue regeneration. Allogeneic PDLSCs can reconstruct periodontal ligament tissue that has been damaged by periodontal diseases and regulate T-cell immunity. However, the effect of PDLSCs on B cells remains unknown. Here, we treated periodontitis in a miniature pig model using allogeneic PDLSCs and showed a reduction in humoral immunity in the animals. When cocultured with normal B cells, human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) had similar effects as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in suppressing B cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, while intriguingly, hPDLSCs increased B cell viability by secreting interleukin-6. Mechanistically, hPDLSCs suppressed B cell activation through cell-to-cell contact mostly mediated by programmed cell death protein 1 and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1. Our data revealed a previously unrecognized function of PDLSCs in regulating humoral immune responses, which may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for immune-related disorders. STEM Cells2013;31:1371–1382