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Keywords:

  • Skeletal stem cell;
  • Mesenchymal;
  • Osteogenesis;
  • Translational research;
  • Angiogenesis;
  • Tissue regeneration;
  • Osteoprogenitor;
  • Bone tissue engineering

Abstract

Skeletal stem cells confer to bone its innate capacity for regeneration and repair. Bone regeneration strategies seek to harness and enhance this regenerative capacity for the replacement of tissue damaged or lost through congenital defects, trauma, functional/esthetic problems, and a broad range of diseases associated with an increasingly aged population. This review describes the state of the field and current steps to translate and apply skeletal stem cell biology in the clinic and the problems therein. Challenges are described along with key strategies including the isolation and ex vivo expansion of multipotential populations, the targeting/delivery of regenerative populations to sites of repair, and their differentiation toward bone lineages. Finally, preclinical models of bone repair are discussed along with their implications for clinical translation and the opportunities to harness that knowledge for musculoskeletal regeneration. Stem Cells 2014;32:35–44