Concise Review: Bridging the Gap: Bone Regeneration Using Skeletal Stem Cell-Based Strategies—Where Are We Now?

Authors

  • Jonathan I. Dawson,

    1. Bone & Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration Human Development and Health, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
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  • Janos Kanczler,

    1. Bone & Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration Human Development and Health, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
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  • Rahul Tare,

    1. Bone & Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration Human Development and Health, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
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  • Moustapha Kassem,

    1. Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Odense, Odense, Denmark
    2. DanStem Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    3. Stem Cell Unit, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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  • Richard O.C. Oreffo

    Corresponding author
    1. Bone & Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration Human Development and Health, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
    2. Stem Cell Unit, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    • Correspondence: Richard O.C. Oreffo, BSc DPhil, Professor of Musculoskeletal Science, Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells & Regeneration, Human Development and Health, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, U.K. Telephone: 44-0-23-80798502; Fax: 44-0-23-80785255; e-mail: roco@soton.ac.uk

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Abstract

Skeletal stem cells confer to bone its innate capacity for regeneration and repair. Bone regeneration strategies seek to harness and enhance this regenerative capacity for the replacement of tissue damaged or lost through congenital defects, trauma, functional/esthetic problems, and a broad range of diseases associated with an increasingly aged population. This review describes the state of the field and current steps to translate and apply skeletal stem cell biology in the clinic and the problems therein. Challenges are described along with key strategies including the isolation and ex vivo expansion of multipotential populations, the targeting/delivery of regenerative populations to sites of repair, and their differentiation toward bone lineages. Finally, preclinical models of bone repair are discussed along with their implications for clinical translation and the opportunities to harness that knowledge for musculoskeletal regeneration. Stem Cells 2014;32:35–44

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