• 1
    Erdo F, Trapp T, Buhrle C et al. [Embryonic stem cell therapy in experimental stroke: host-dependent malignant transformation]. Orv Hetil 2004; 145: 13071313.
  • 2
    Buhnemann C, Scholz A, Bernreuther C et al. Neuronal differentiation of transplanted embryonic stem cell-derived precursors in stroke lesions of adult rats. Brain 2006; 129: 32383248.
  • 3
    Hayashi J, Takagi Y, Fukuda H et al. Primate embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal progenitors transplanted into ischemic brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2006; 26: 906914.
  • 4
    Okada S, Ishii K, Yamane J et al. In vivo imaging of engrafted NSCs: Its application in evaluating the optimal timing of transplantation for spinal cord injury. FASEB J 2005; 19: 18391841.
  • 5
    Ogawa Y, Sawamoto K, Miyata T et al. Transplantation of in vitro-expanded fetal neural progenitor cells results in neurogenesis and functional recovery after spinal cord contusion injury in adult rats. J Neurosci Res 2002; 69: 925933.
  • 6
    Darsalia V, Kallur T, Kokaia Z. Survival, migration and neuronal differentiation of human fetal striatal and cortical NSCs grafted in stroke-damaged rat striatum. Eur J Neurosci 2007; 26: 605614.
  • 7
    Doetsch F, Caille I, Lim DA et al. Subventricular zone astrocytes are NSCs in the adult mammalian brain. Cell 1999; 97: 703716.
  • 8
    Kuhn HG, Dickinson-Anson H, Gage FH. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease of neuronal progenitor proliferation. J Neurosci 1996; 16: 20272033.
  • 9
    Takahashi K, Yasuhara T, Shingo T et al. Embryonic NSCs transplanted in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats demonstrated potent therapeutic effects, compared to adult NSCs. Brain Res 2008; 1234: 172182.
  • 10
    Kameda M, Shingo T, Takahashi K et al. Adult neural stem and progenitor cells modified to secrete GDNF can protect, migrate and integrate after intracerebral transplantation in rats with transient forebrain ischemia. Eur J Neurosci 2007; 26: 14621478.
  • 11
    Hicks AU, Hewlett K, Windle V et al. Enriched environment enhances transplanted subventricular zone stem cell migration and functional recovery after stroke. Neuroscience 2007; 146: 3140.
  • 12
    Toda H, Takahashi J, Iwakami N et al. Grafting NSCs improved the impaired spatial recognition in ischemic rats. Neurosci Lett 2001; 316: 912.
  • 13
    Shen Q, Wang Y, Kokovay E et al. Adult SVZ stem cells lie in a vascular niche: A quantitative analysis of niche cell-cell interactions. Cell Stem Cell 2008; 3: 289300.
  • 14
    Capela A, Temple S. LeX/ssea-1 is expressed by adult mouse CNS stem cells, identifying them as nonependymal. Neuron 2002; 35: 865875.
  • 15
    Palmer TD, Willhoite AR, Gage FH. Vascular niche for adult hippocampal neurogenesis. J Comp Neurol 2000; 425: 479494.
  • 16
    Tavazoie M, Van der Veken L, Silva-Vargas V et al. A specialized vascular niche for adult NSCs. Cell Stem Cell 2008; 3: 279288.
  • 17
    Louissaint A, Jr., Rao S, Leventhal C et al. Coordinated interaction of neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the adult songbird brain. Neuron 2002; 34: 945960.
  • 18
    Shen Q, Goderie SK, Jin L et al. Endothelial cells stimulate self-renewal and expand neurogenesis of NSCs. Science 2004; 304: 13381340.
  • 19
    Teng H, Zhang ZG, Wang L et al. Coupling of angiogenesis and neurogenesis in cultured endothelial cells and neural progenitor cells after stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2008; 28: 764771.
  • 20
    Jiao J, Chen DF. Induction of neurogenesis in nonconventional neurogenic regions of the adult central nervous system by niche astrocyte-produced signals. Stem Cells 2008; 26: 12211230.
  • 21
    Arsenijevic Y, Villemure JG, Brunet JF et al. Isolation of multipotent neural precursors residing in the cortex of the adult human brain. Exp Neurol 2001; 170: 4862.
  • 22
    Nakagomi T, Taguchi A, Fujimori Y et al. Isolation and characterization of neural stem/progenitor cells from post-stroke cerebral cortex in mice. Eur J Neurosci 2009; 29: 18421852.
  • 23
    Nunes MC, Roy NS, Keyoung HM et al. Identification and isolation of multipotential neural progenitor cells from the subcortical white matter of the adult human brain. Nat Med 2003; 9: 439447.
  • 24
    Weiss S, Dunne C, Hewson J et al. Multipotent CNS stem cells are present in the adult mammalian spinal cord and ventricular neuroaxis. J Neurosci 1996; 16: 75997609.
  • 25
    Parr AM, Kulbatski I, Zahir T et al. Transplanted adult spinal cord-derived neural stem/progenitor cells promote early functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury. Neuroscience 2008; 155: 760770.
  • 26
    Taguchi A, Soma T, Tanaka H et al. Administration of CD34+ cells after stroke enhances neurogenesis via angiogenesis in a mouse model. J Clin Invest 2004; 114: 330338.
  • 27
    Taguchi A, Wen Z, Myojin K et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has a negative effect on stroke outcome in a murine model. Eur J Neurosci 2007; 26: 126133.
  • 28
    Reynolds BA, Weiss S. Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Science 1992; 255: 17071710.
  • 29
    Kubo S, Seleme MC, Soifer HS et al. L1 retrotransposition in nondividing and primary human somatic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 80368041.
  • 30
    Campbell RE, Tour O, Palmer AE et al. A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 78777882.
  • 31
    Kimble DP. Hippocampus and internal inhibition. Psychol Bull 1968; 70: 285295.
  • 32
    Song H, Stevens CF, Gage FH. Astroglia induce neurogenesis from adult NSCs. Nature 2002; 417: 3944.
  • 33
    Stubbs D, Deproto J, Nie K et al. Neurovascular congruence during cerebral cortical development. Cereb Cortex 2009; 19: i32i41.
  • 34
    Javaherian A, Kriegstein A. A stem cell niche for intermediate progenitor cells of the embryonic cortex. Cereb Cortex 2009; 19: i70i77.
  • 35
    Lai B, Mao XO, Greenberg DA et al. Endothelium-induced proliferation and electrophysiological differentiation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors. Stem Cells Dev 2008; 17: 565572.
  • 36
    Seghezzi G, Patel S, Ren CJ et al. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the endothelial cells of forming capillaries: An autocrine mechanism contributing to angiogenesis. J Cell Biol 1998; 141: 16591673.
  • 37
    Biro S, Yu ZX, Fu YM et al. Expression and subcellular distribution of basic fibroblast growth factor are regulated during migration of endothelial cells. Circ Res 1994; 74: 485494.
  • 38
    Collins T, Ginsburg D, Boss JM et al. Cultured human endothelial cells express platelet-derived growth factor B chain: cDNA cloning and structural analysis. Nature 1985; 316: 748750.
  • 39
    Leventhal C, Rafii S, Rafii D et al. Endothelial trophic support of neuronal production and recruitment from the adult mammalian subependyma. Mol Cell Neurosci 1999; 13: 450464.
  • 40
    Le Bras B, Barallobre MJ, Homman-Ludiye J et al. VEGF-C is a trophic factor for neural progenitors in the vertebrate embryonic brain. Nat Neurosci 2006; 9: 340348.
  • 41
    Reimers D, Lopez-Toledano MA, Mason I et al. Developmental expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors in NSC progeny. Modulation of neuronal and glial lineages by basic Fgf treatment. Neurol Res 2001; 23: 612621.
  • 42
    Yan YP, Sailor KA, Vemuganti R et al. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is an endogenous mediator of focal ischemia-induced neural progenitor proliferation. Eur J Neurosci 2006; 24: 4554.
  • 43
    Erlandsson A, Enarsson M, Forsberg-Nilsson K. Immature neurons from CNS stem cells proliferate in response to platelet-derived growth factor. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 34833491.
  • 44
    Li Q, Ford MC, Lavik EB et al. Modeling the neurovascular niche: VEGF- and BDNF-mediated cross-talk between NSCs and endothelial cells: an in vitro study. J Neurosci Res 2006; 84: 16561668.
  • 45
    Li Z, Wu JC, Sheikh AY et al. Differentiation, survival, and function of embryonic stem cell derived endothelial cells for ischemic heart disease. Circulation 2007; 116: I4654.
  • 46
    Walczak P, Chen N, Eve D et al. Long-term cultured human umbilical cord neural-like cells transplanted into the striatum of NOD SCID mice. Brain Res Bull 2007; 74: 155163.
  • 47
    Roitbak T, Li L, Cunningham LA. Neural stem/progenitor cells promote endothelial cell morphogenesis and protect endothelial cells against ischemia via HIF-1alpha-regulated VEGF signaling. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2008; 28: 15301542.
  • 48
    Jin K, Wang X, Xie L et al. Evidence for stroke-induced neurogenesis in the human brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 1319813202.
  • 49
    Okada S, Nakamura M, Mikami Y et al. Blockade of interleukin-6 receptor suppresses reactive astrogliosis and ameliorates functional recovery in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosci Res 2004; 76: 265276.
  • 50
    Nakashima K, Yanagisawa M, Arakawa H et al. Synergistic signaling in fetal brain by STAT3-Smad1 complex bridged by p300. Science 1999; 284: 479482.
  • 51
    Shihabuddin LS, Horner PJ, Ray J et al. Adult spinal cord stem cells generate neurons after transplantation in the adult dentate gyrus. J Neurosci 2000; 20: 87278735.
  • 52
    Jiao JW, Feldheim DA, Chen DF. Ephrins as negative regulators of adult neurogenesis in diverse regions of the central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008; 105: 87788783.