SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 1998–2002. Published by the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, 2005.
  • 2
    Hemmati HD, Nakano I, Lazareff JA et al. Cancerous stem cells can arise from pediatric brain tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 1517815183.
  • 3
    Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID et al. Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature 2004; 432: 396401.
  • 4
    Xie Z, Chin LS. Molecular and cell biology of brain tumor stem cells: lessons from neural progenitor/stem cells. Neurosurg Focus 2008; 24: E25.
  • 5
    Bao S, Wu Q, McLendon RE et al. GSCs promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response. Nature 2006; 444: 756760.
  • 6
    Bao S, Wu Q, Sathornsumetee S et al. Stem cell-like glioma cells promote tumor angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 78437848.
  • 7
    Bao S, Wu Q, Li Z et al. Targeting cancer stem cells through L1CAM suppresses glioma growth. Cancer Res 2008; 68: 60436048.
  • 8
    Li Z, Bao S, Wu Q et al. Hypoxia-inducible factors regulate tumorigenic capacity of glioma stem cells. Cancer Cell 2009; 15: 501513.
  • 9
    Ligon KL, Huillard E, Mehta S et al. Olig2-regulated lineage-restricted pathway controls replication competence in neural stem cells and malignant glioma. Neuron 2007; 53: 503517.
  • 10
    Eramo A, Ricci-Vitiani L, Zeuner A et al. Chemotherapy resistance of glioblastoma stem cells. Cell Death Differ 2006; 13: 12381241.
  • 11
    Pallini R, Ricci-Vitiani L, Banna GL et al. Cancer stem cell analysis and clinical outcome in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 82058212.
  • 12
    Zeppernick F, Ahmadi R, Campos B et al. Stem cell marker CD133 affects clinical outcome in glioma patients. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 123129.
  • 13
    Kishimoto T. Interleukin-6: from basic science to medicine: 40 years in immunology. Annu Rev Immunol 2005; 23: 121.
  • 14
    Hodge DR, Hurt EM, Farrar WL. The role of IL6 and STAT3 in inflammation and cancer. Eur J Cancer 2005; 41: 25022012.
  • 15
    Choi C, Gillespie GY, Van Wagoner NJ et al. Fas engagement increases expression of interleukin-6 in human glioma cells. J Neurooncol 2002; 56: 1319.
  • 16
    Tchirkov A, Khalil T, Chautard E et al. Interleukin-6 gene amplification and shortened survival in glioblastoma patients. Br J Cancer 2007; 96: 474476.
  • 17
    Weissenberger J, Loeffler S, Kappeler A et al. IL6 is required for glioma development in a mouse model. Oncogene 2004; 23: 33083316.
  • 18
    Selmaj KW, Faroog M, Norton WT et al. Proliferation of astrocytes in vitro in response to cytokines. J Immunol 1990; 144: 129135.
  • 19
    Ishioka S, van Haaften-Day C, Sagae S et al. Interleukin-6 (IL6) does not change the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the prevention of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 1999; 25: 2327.
  • 20
    Ancrile B, Lim KH, Counter CM. Oncogenic Ras-induced secretion of IL6 is required for tumorigenesis. Genes Dev 2007; 21: 17141719.
  • 21
    Conze D, Weiss L, Regen PS et al. Autocrine production of interleukin 6 causes multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 88518858.
  • 22
    Sehgal PB, Tamm I. Interleukin-6 enhances motility of breast carcinoma cells. EXS 1991; 59: 178193.
  • 23
    Sansone P, Storci G, Tavolari S et al. IL6 triggers malignant features in mammospheres from human ductal breast carcinoma and normal mammary gland. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 39884002.
  • 24
    Rahaman SO, Harbor PC, Chernova O et al. Inhibition of constitutively active Stat3 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme cells. Oncogene 2002; 21: 84048013.
  • 25
    Wang H, Wang H, Zhang W et al. Analysis of the activation status of Akt, NFkappaB, and Stat3 in human diffuse gliomas. Lab Invest 2004; 84: 941951.
  • 26
    Konnikova L, Kotecki M, Kruger MM et al. Knockdown of STAT3 expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cells. BMC Cancer 2003; 3: 23.
  • 27
    Su Y, Zhang X, Gu J et al. JSI-124 inhibits glioblastoma multiforme cell proliferation through G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis augment. Cancer Biol Ther 2008; 7: 12431249.
  • 28
    Matsuda T, Nakamura T, Nakao K et al. STAT3 activation is sufficient to maintain an undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells. EMBO J 1999; 18: 42614269.
  • 29
    Niwa H, Burdon T, Chambers I et al. Self-renewal of pluripotent embryonic stem cells is mediated via activation of STAT3. Genes Dev 1998; 12: 20482060.
  • 30
    Shu Q, Wong KK, Su JM et al. Direct orthotopic transplantation of fresh surgical specimen preserves CD133+ tumor cells in clinically relevant mouse models of medulloblastoma and glioma. Stem Cells 2008; 26: 14141424.
  • 31
    Schust J, Sperl B, Hollis A et al. Stattic: a small-molecule inhibitor of STAT3 activation and dimerization. Chem Biol 2006; 13: 12351242.
  • 32
    Harris AL. Hypoxia—a key regulatory factor in tumour growth. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2: 3847.
  • 33
    Loeffler S, Fayard B, Weis J et al. Interleukin-6 induces transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in astrocytes in vivo and regulates VEGF promoter activity in glioblastoma cells via direct interaction between STAT3 and Sp1. Int J Cancer 2005; 115: 202213.
  • 34
    Trikha M, Corringham R, Klein B et al. Targeted anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer: a review of the rationale and clinical evidence. Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9: 46534665.
  • 35
    Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Herndon JE 2nd et al. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 47224729.