Telephone: 212-659-9691; Fax: 212-849-2442
Embryonic Stem Cells/Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2009
Copyright © 2009 AlphaMed Press
Volume 27, Issue 12, pages 2884–2895, December 2009
How to Cite
Zhang, H., Fraser, S. T., Papazoglu, C., Hoatlin, M. E. and Baron, M. H. (2009), Transcriptional Activation by the Mixl1 Homeodomain Protein in Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. STEM CELLS, 27: 2884–2895. doi: 10.1002/stem.203
Author contributions: H.Z., S.T.F., M.E.H., and M.H.B.: conception and design; H.Z., S.T.F., and C.P.: collection and assembly of data; H.Z., S.T.F., C.P., and M.H.B.: data analysis and interpretation; M.E.H.: provision of study material; H.Z., S.T.F., and M.H.B.: manuscript writing; H.Z. and M.H.B.: financial support; M.H.B.: final approval of manuscript.
First published online in STEM CELLS EXPRESS August 26, 2009.
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
- Issue online: 14 DEC 2009
- Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2009
- Accepted manuscript online: 26 AUG 2009 12:00AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 AUG 2009
- Manuscript Received: 16 MAR 2009
- NIH. Grant Numbers: KO1 DK070752, RO1 HL62248, EB02209
- 1Zebrafish gastrulation: cell movements, signals, and mechanisms. Int Rev Cytol 2007; 261: 159–192., .
- 2Gene function in mouse embryogenesis: get set for gastrulation. Nat Rev Genet 2007; 8: 368–381., .
- 3Building the mouse gastrula: signals, asymmetry and lineages. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2006; 16: 419–425., , .
- 4A novel Xenopus mix-like gene milk involved in the control of the endomesodermal fates. Development 1998; 125: 2577–2585., , et al.
- 5A human Mix-like homeobox gene MIXL shows functional similarity to Xenopus Mix. 1. Blood 2002; 100: 89–95., , et al.
- 6Mixer, a homeobox gene required for endoderm development. Science 1998; 281: 91–96., .
- 7DNA sequences mediating the transcriptional response of the Mix. 2 homeobox gene to mesoderm induction. Dev Biol 1996; 177: 226–231..
- 8Bix1, a direct target of Xenopus T-box genes, causes formation of ventral mesoderm and endoderm. Development 1998; 125: 3997–4006., , et al.
- 9CMIX, a paired-type homeobox gene expressed before and during formation of the avian primitive streak. Mech Dev 1998; 75: 163–165., , .
- 10Structure, upstream promoter region, and functional domains of a mouse and human Mix paired-like homeobox gene. Gene 2002; 291: 135–147., , et al.
- 11Mix. 1, a homeobox mRNA inducible by mesoderm inducers, is expressed mostly in the presumptive endodermal cells of Xenopus embryos. Cell 1989; 57: 965–974..
- 12Cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of murine and human homologues of a Xenopus mix gene. Dev Dyn 2000; 219: 497–504., , et al.
- 13Mezzo, a paired-like homeobox protein is an immediate target of Nodal signalling and regulates endoderm specification in zebrafish. Development 2002; 129: 4901–4914., .
- 14Mml, a mouse Mix-like gene expressed in the primitive streak. Mech Dev 1999; 87: 189–192., .
- 15Characterization of CMIX, a chicken homeobox gene related to the Xenopus gene mix.1. Mech Dev 1998; 75: 167–170., , .
- 16BMP-4-responsive regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning by the homeobox protein Mix. 1. Nature 1996; 382: 357–360., , et al.
- 17Cloning of Mix-related homeodomain proteins using fast retrieval of gel shift activities, (FROGS), a technique for the isolation of DNA-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 11251–11256., , et al.
- 18The zebrafish bonnie and clyde gene encodes a Mix family homeodomain protein that regulates the generation of endodermal precursors. Genes Dev 2000; 14: 1279–1289., , et al.
- 19The Mix family homeodomain gene bonnie and clyde functions with other components of the Nodal signaling pathway to regulate neural patterning in zebrafish. Development 2003; 130: 4989–4998., , .
- 20Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in serum-free medium reveals distinct roles for bone morphogenetic protein 4, vascular endothelial growth factor, stem cell factor, and fibroblast growth factor 2 in hematopoiesis. Stem Cells 2007; 25: 2206–2214., , et al.
- 21The primitive streak gene Mixl1 is required for efficient haematopoiesis and BMP4-induced ventral mesoderm patterning in differentiating ES cells. Development 2005; 132: 873–884., , et al.
- 22A role for the vegetally expressed Xenopus gene Mix. 1 in endoderm formation and in the restriction of mesoderm to the marginal zone. Development 1998; 125: 2371–2380., , et al.
- 23Mixer/Bon and FoxH1/Sur have overlapping and divergent roles in Nodal signaling and mesendoderm induction. Development 2003; 130: 5589–5599., , et al.
- 24Transcriptional regulation of the homeobox gene Mixl1 by TGF-beta and FoxH1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 333: 1361–1369., , et al.
- 25Mouse Mix gene is activated early during differentiation of ES and F9 stem cells and induces endoderm in frog embryos. Dev Dyn 2003; 226: 446–459., , et al.
- 26Mixl1 is required for axial mesendoderm morphogenesis and patterning in the murine embryo. Development 2002; 129: 3597–3608., , et al.
- 27Dissecting the molecular hierarchy for mesendoderm differentiation through a combination of embryonic stem cell culture and RNA interference. Stem Cells 2007; 25: 1664–1674., , et al.
- 28Acceleration of mesoderm development and expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in differentiating ES cells by the mouse Mix-like homeodomain transcription factor. Blood 2006; 107: 3122–3130., , et al.
- 29Goosecoid and mix.1 repress Brachyury expression and are required for head formation in Xenopus. Development 1999; 126: 1769–1779., .
- 30Homeodomain and winged-helix transcription factors recruit activated Smads to distinct promoter elements via a common Smad interaction motif. Genes Dev 2000; 14: 435–451., , et al.
- 31Gastrulation in the mouse: the role of the homeobox gene goosecoid. Cell 1992; 69: 1097–1106., , et al.
- 32The eed mutation disrupts anterior mesoderm production in mice. Development 1995; 121: 273–285., , et al.
- 33HNF3beta and Lim1 interact in the visceral endoderm to regulate primitive streak formation and anterior-posterior polarity in the mouse embryo. Development 1999; 126: 4499–4511., , et al.
- 34The Foxh1-dependent autoregulatory enhancer controls the level of Nodal signals in the mouse embryo. Development 2002; 129: 3455–3468., , et al.
- 35Structure-function analysis of the TBP-binding protein Dr1 reveals a mechanism for repression of class II gene transcription. Genes Dev 1994; 8: 2097–2109., , et al.
- 36Hematopoietic commitment of ES cells in culture. Methods Enzymol 2003; 365: 39–59., .
- 37Determination of protein-DNA sequence specificity by PCR-assisted binding-site selection. Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2001;Chapter 12:Unit 12.11..
- 38Cooperative dimerization of paired class homeo domains on DNA. Genes Dev 1993; 7: 2120–2134., , et al.
- 39WebLogo: a sequence logo generator. Genome Res 2004; 14: 1188–1190., , et al.
- 40Nucleotides flanking a conserved TAAT core dictate the DNA binding specificity of three murine homeodomain proteins. Mol Cell Biol 1993; 13: 2354–2365., , .
- 41Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Vol 3. 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989., , .
- 42Chromatin immunoprecipitation for determining the association of proteins with specific genomic sequences in vivo. Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2005; Chapter 21:Unit 21.23., , et al.
- 43Embryonic stem cell differentiation: emergence of a new era in biology and medicine. Genes Dev 2005; 19: 1129–1155..
- 44Characterization of mesendoderm: a diverging point of the definitive endoderm and mesoderm in embryonic stem cell differentiation culture. Development 2005; 132: 4363–4374., , et al.
- 45Microarray analysis of PDGFR alpha+ populations in ES cell differentiation culture identifies genes involved in differentiation of mesoderm and mesenchyme including ARID3b that is essential for development of embryonic mesenchymal cells. Dev Biol 2006; 293: 25–37., , et al.
- 46Expression of CD41 marks the initiation of definitive hematopoiesis in the mouse embryo. Blood 2003; 101: 508–516., , et al.
- 47Molecular mechanisms of Spemann's organizer formation: conserved growth factor synergy between Xenopus and mouse. Genes Dev 1995; 9: 3038–3050., , et al.
- 48Conservation and diversification in homeodomain-DNA interactions: a comparative genetic analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 6886–6891., , et al.
- 49Drosophila Goosecoid requires a conserved heptapeptide for repression of paired-class homeoprotein activators. Development 1998; 125: 937–947., , et al.
- 50Physical and genetic interactions between Alx4 and Cart1. Development 1999; 126: 359–369., , et al.
- 51Site-specific heterodimerization by paired class homeodomain proteins mediates selective transcriptional responses. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 32325–32332., .
- 52Organizer-specific homeobox genes in Xenopus laevis embryos. Science 1991; 253: 194–196., , et al.
- 53Molecular nature of Spemann's organizer: the role of the Xenopus homeobox gene goosecoid. Cell 1991; 67: 1111–1120., , et al.
- 54Targeted mutation of the murine goosecoid gene results in craniofacial defects and neonatal death. Development 1995; 121: 2917–2922., , et al.
- 55Goosecoid is not an essential component of the mouse gastrula organizer but is required for craniofacial and rib development. Development 1995; 121: 3005–3012., , et al.
- 56Goosecoid and gastrulation. In: SternCD, ed. Gastrulation: From Cells to Embryos. 1st ed. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2004: 581–589..
- 57Foxh1 recruits Gsc to negatively regulate Mixl1 expression during early mouse development. EMBO J 2007; 26: 3132–3143., , et al.