The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the distribution of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) and adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in the striatum of healthy subjects using PET imaging with 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-[11C]methyl-3-propylxanthine ([11C]MPDX) and [7-methyl-11C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([11C]TMSX), respectively. We recruited 8 young (22.0 ± 1.7 years) and 10 elderly (65.4 ± 7.6 years) volunteers to undergo [11C]MPDX PET scanning, and 11 young (22.7 ± 2.7 years) and six elderly (60.7 ± 8.5 years) volunteers to undergo [11C]TMSX PET scanning. A dynamic series of decay-corrected PET scans was performed for 60 min following injection of [11C]MPDX or [11C]TMSX. We calculated the binding potential (BPND) of [11C]MPDX and distribution volume ratio (DVR) of [11C]TMSX in the striatum. The BPND of [11C]MPDX was significantly lower in elderly than in young subjects, both in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus. The BPND was negatively correlated with age in both the putamen and the head of the caudate nucleus. However, no difference was found between the DVR of [11C]TMSX in the striata of young and elderly subjects, nor was there a correlation between age and the DVR of [11C]TMSX. The effect of age on the distribution of A1Rs in the human striatum described herein is similar to previous reports of age-related decreases in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Unlike A1Rs, however, this study suggests that the distribution of A2ARs does not change with age. Synapse 66:832–839, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.