Hippocampus is one of the most important structures that mediates learning and memory, cognition, and mental behaviors and profoundly regulated by sex hormones in a sex-specific manner, but the mechanism of underlying sex differences regulation is still unclear. We have previously reported that in the male and female mice, steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and some key synaptic proteins share similar developmental profile in the hippocampus, but how circulating sex hormones affect hippocampal SRC-1 as well as these synaptic proteins remain unclear. In this study, we examined how gonad sex hormones regulate hippocampal SRC-1, synaptophysin, PSD-95, and AMPA receptor subtype GluR1 by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that in the female mice, ovariectomy affected hippocampal SRC-1 and GluR1 were only detected at 2 weeks post operation, then it recovered to sham level; synaptophysin was unaffected at any timepoint examined; significant decrease of PSD-95 was only detected at 4 weeks post operation. However, in the male hippocampus, SRC-1 and PSD-95 were decreased from one week and lasted to 4 weeks after orchidectomy, GluR1 decreased from 2 weeks after orchidectomy, but synaptophysin remained unchanged as in the females. Correlation analysis showed the profiles of SRC-1 were positively correlated with GluR1 of the females, PSD-95 and GluR1 of the males, respectively. The above results suggested a distinct regulatory mode between female and male gonad hormones in the regulation of hippocampal SRC-1 and synaptic proteins, which may be one of the mechanisms contributing to the dimorphism of hippocampus during development and ageing. Synapse, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.