The Chemical Record

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 3

June 2016

Volume 16, Issue 3

Pages 1017–1740

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Personal Account
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      Cover Picture (page 1017)

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201690002

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  2. Personal Account

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Personal Account
    1. Harnessing the Versatility of Continuous-Flow Processes: Selective and Efficient Reactions (pages 1018–1033)

      István M. Mándity, Sándor B. Ötvös, György Szőlősi and Ferenc Fülöp

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500286

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      Don't stop! A wide range of organic transformations are described, emphasizing the multifaceted nature of continuous-flow reactors. Reactions such as (stereoselective) hydrogenations, deuterations, the copper-catalyzed synthesis of triazoles and aromatic azo compounds, organocatalysis, and peptide syntheses are summarized in this personal review. All transformations discussed are highly efficient and selective.

    2. Laser Spectroscopic Study of Cold Gas-Phase Host-Guest Complexes of Crown Ethers (pages 1034–1053)

      Takayuki Ebata and Yoshiya Inokuchi

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500287

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      The structure, molecular recognition, and inclusion effect on the photophysics of guest species are investigated for neutral and ionic cold host-guest complexes of crown ethers (CEs) in the gas phase.

    3. Understanding Mechanism and Designing Strategies for Sustainable Synthesis of Zeolites: A Personal Story (pages 1054–1066)

      Yeqing Wang and Feng-Shou Xiao

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500255

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      The modern synthesis of zeolites normally requires the presence of organic templates and solvent, which usually produce a large amount of harmful gases and polluted solvents. This Personal Account briefly summarizes our recent sustainable routes for the synthesis of zeolites, including organotemplate-free synthesis, the design of environmentally friendly templates, and solvent-free synthesis. These routes significantly reduce the formation of harmful gases and polluted solvents.

    4. Functional Arrays for Light Energy Capture and Charge Separation (pages 1067–1081)

      Lucia Flamigni

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500295

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      Typical procedures for the effective design and optimization of functional multicomponent structures for light to chemical energy conversion are outlined here for a variety of examples based on corroles and terpyridyl metal complexes.

    5. New Copper, Palladium and Nickel Catalytic Systems: An Evolution towards More Efficient Procedures (pages 1082–1095)

      Raul SanMartin, María Teresa Herrero and Esther Domínguez

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500289

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      Efficiency is the key: A summary of the development of new metal-catalyzed arylation (O-, S-, and N-arylations; α-arylation of ketone enolates; Suzuki biaryl coupling; direct arylation of (hetero)arenes) and oxidation procedures, with a focus on catalyst loadings and more sustainable reagents/reaction media, is presented.

    6. The Application of Copper/Iron Cocatalysis in Cross-Coupling Reactions (pages 1096–1105)

      Jincheng Mao, Hong Yan, Guangwei Rong, Yue He and Guoqi Zhang

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500261

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      Copper/iron cocatalysts show much better catalytic efficacy than copper or iron catalysts alone in many cross-couplings. This account describes their application in a variety of coupling reactions involving C–C, C–N, C–O, C–S, and C–B bond formation. Furthermore, Cu-Fe nanoparticle catalysts also display great potential for practical applications, thanks to their excellent recyclability. This represents an alternative approach for the conventional precious metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    7. Function-Oriented Synthesis: How to Design Simplified Analogues of Antibacterial Nucleoside Natural Products? (pages 1106–1115)

      Satoshi Ichikawa

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500247

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      A rational and drastic simplification of the molecular architecture of caprazamycins has been conducted to develop three types of simplified derivatives, namely, oxazolidine, isoxazolidine, and lactam-fused isoxazolidine-containing uridine derivatives by considering the structure–activity relationship studies with several truncated analogues. These simplified derivatives were efficiently synthesized and exhibited promising antibacterial activities.

    8. Systematic Enumeration and Symmetries of Cubane Derivatives (pages 1116–1163)

      Shinsaku Fujita

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500234

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      Fujita's unit-subduced-cycle-index (USCI) approach, Fujita's proligand method, and Fujita's stereoisogram approach serve as a new combined set of theoretical foundations for stereochemistry on the basis of mathematical formulations. To demonstrate their feasibilities, they have been applied to cubane derivatives for the comprehensive investigation of geometric and stereoisomeric features of stereochemistry.

    9. Domino Reactions Based on Combinatorial Bond Transformations in Electron-Deficient Tertiary Enamines (pages 1164–1177)

      Jie-Ping Wan and Yong Gao

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500296

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      Electron-deficient tertiary enamines such as N,N-disubstituted enamines and enaminoesters are stable molecules containing multiple reaction sites, and are highly useful building blocks in organic synthesis. Recent advances in domino reactions designed by using combinatorial transformations on the chemical bonds of these enamines are summarized.

    10. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Direct Addition of Aryl C–H Bonds to Unsaturated Electrophiles (pages 1178–1190)

      Xian-Ying Shi, Wen-Jing Han and Chao-Jun Li

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500250

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      The direct addition of C–H bonds to unsaturated bonds represents a greener alternative to the classical nucleophilic addition using organometallic reagents and has profound synthetic potential because it offers a more straightforward and economical route to many useful compounds without the pre-generation of organometallic reagents from stoichiometric halides. In this account, we demonstrate our contributions to the direct insertion of aromatic C–H bonds into polar C=C, C=N, and C=O bonds via directing-group-assisted and transition-metal-catalyzed tandem reactions.

    11. Organo- and Organometallic-Catalytic Intramolecular [1,5]-Hydride Transfer/Cyclization Process through C(sp3)–H Bond Activation (pages 1191–1203)

      Su Jin Kwon and Dae Young Kim

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600003

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      Organocatalysts have been successfully used for C(sp3)–H functionalization reactions including redox-neutral processes. In this account, we present a tentative summary of organo- and organometallic-catalytic internal redox cascade reactions with respect to the mechanism, the reactivity of hydrogen donors and acceptors, and the migration modes of hydrogen.

    12. Fabrication of Boron Nitride Nanosheets by Exfoliation (pages 1204–1215)

      Zifeng Wang, Zijie Tang, Qi Xue, Yan Huang, Yang Huang, Minshen Zhu, Zengxia Pei, Hongfei Li, Hongbo Jiang, Chenxi Fu and Chunyi Zhi

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500302

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      Exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride is a critical issue for the large-scale fabrication of few-layered boron nitride nanosheets. The process can be depicted as the disintegration of the atomic layers from their bulk 3D crystals and the formation of individual nanosheets. The exfoliation process can be realized by many approaches, and is a cost-effective way to produce 2D BNNSs.

    13. Supramolecular Drug Delivery Systems Based on Water-Soluble Pillar[n]arenes (pages 1216–1227)

      Xuan Wu, Lei Gao, Xiao-Yu Hu and Leyong Wang

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500265

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      This account describes our recent progress in the development of pillararene-based stimuli-responsive supramolecular nanostructures constructed by reversible noncovalent host–guest interactions with the aim of creating smart and functional supramolecular drug delivery systems for controllable anticancer drug delivery. The potential applications and fundamental questions of these supramolecular drug carriers in cancer treatment are also discussed.

    14. From QCA (Quantum Cellular Automata) to Organocatalytic Reactions with Stabilized Carbenium Ions (pages 1228–1243)

      Andrea Gualandi, Luca Mengozzi, Elisabetta Manoni and Pier Giorgio Cozzi

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500299

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      All roads lead…to carbenium ions! Taking advantage of suggestions inserted in Mayr's table of reactivity, we have explored the use and generation of tailored carbenium ions for many purposes. In this account, we will illustrate the advantage in using carbenium ions for developing different research fields, from quantum cellular automata to stereoselective SN1 type reactions.

    15. Surface and Interface Engineering of Graphene Oxide Films by Controllable Photoreduction (pages 1244–1255)

      Yu-Qing Liu, Yong-Lai Zhang, Yan Liu, Hao-Bo Jiang, Dong-Dong Han, Bing Han, Jing Feng and Hong-Bo Sun

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500306

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      Shining a light on photoreduction: Engineering of the surface/interface properties of graphene oxides by controllable photoreduction is presented. Typical photoreduction processes, including femtosecond laser direct writing, laser holographic lithography, and controllable UV irradiation, have been summarized. The photoreduction strategy shows distinct advantages, such as mask-free patterning, chemical-free modification, controllable reduction degree, and environmentally friendly processing; thus it holds great promise for the development of graphene-based devices.

    16. Development of Highly Active Chiral Titanium Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Various Organometallic Reagents to Aldehydes (pages 1256–1273)

      Toshiro Harada

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500269

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      The catalytic enantioselective carbonyl addition reaction has long attracted the interest of chemists because of its synthetic importance. In an effort to enhance the practicality, a highly active and enantioselective chiral titanium catalyst system was recently developed in our laboratory, enabling the enantioselective carbonyl addition reaction to aldehydes using various organometallic reagents (RM; M = MgX, Li, BY2, ZnX, AlMe2) at lower catalyst loadings (≤5 mol %).

    17. Our Expedition in Linear Neutral Platinum-Acetylide Complexes: The Preparation of Micro/nanostructure Materials, Complicated Topologies, and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1274–1297)

      Lin Xu and Hai-Bo Yang

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500271

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      The construction of linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes has attracted considerable attention because of their attractive properties such as well-defined linear geometry, synthetic accessibility, and intriguing photoproperties. This personal account reviews the recent progress of our group on construction of new linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes and their applications in the areas of micro/nanostructure materials, complicated topologies, and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    18. Ligand Functionalization in Metal–Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Adsorption (pages 1298–1310)

      Hao Wang, Junjie Peng and Jing Li

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500307

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      CO2 clean up: Ligand functionalization often leads to enhanced CO2–MOF (MOF=metal–organic framework) interactions, at the cost of a decrease in porosity. The overall adsorption capacity will increase when interactions dominate.

    19. Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1311–1336)

      Sumit Chaurasia and Jiann T. Lin

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500288

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      Sensitive architecture: This review focuses on work on metal-free sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Sensitizers based on D−A′−π−A (D is a donor, A is an acceptor, A′ is an electron-deficient entity) architecture exhibit better light harvesting than D−π−A-type sensitizers. The introduction of an additional acceptor group has several advantages and leads to excellent cell performance. Novel high-performance aqueous-based DSSCs were developed with a dual redox couple comprised of imidazolium iodide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl.

    20. Green Catalytic Process for Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide under Mild Conditions (pages 1337–1352)

      Xian-Dong Lang and Liang-Nian He

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500293

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      Carbon traps: As a renewable and abundant C1 resource, CO2 conversion into chemicals and fuels can contribute to sustainable development. CO2 is a thermodynamically inert molecule, so activation is pivotal for its effective conversion at low pressure. The formation of the transition-metal CO2 complex is one of the most powerful ways to induce the inert CO2 molecule to undergo chemical reactions. Thus, efficient bifunctional metal catalysts and green processes for cyclic carbonate synthesis from CO2 have been developed and are summarized herein.

    21. Sulfonyl Azoles in the Synthesis of 3-Functionalized Azole Derivatives (pages 1353–1379)

      Alessandro Palmieri and Marino Petrini

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500291

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      Arlylsulfonyl-substituted azoles, discovered a decade ago, have greatly expanded the synthetic significance of chemistry based on the reactivity of indolenine intermediates. The arylsulfonyl moiety behaves as a good leaving group in many acid- or base-promoted elimination processes. This feature can be suitably exploited, especially in asymmetric synthesis, for which controlled reaction conditions are of paramount importance.

    22. Applications of “Hot” and “Cold” Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) Metal Complexes in Multimodal Imaging (pages 1380–1397)

      Fernando Cortezon-Tamarit, Sophia Sarpaki, David G. Calatayud, Vincenzo Mirabello and Sofia I. Pascu

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500292

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      This review provides a personal account of the general background on the use of bis(thiosemicarbazonato) metal complexes in molecular imaging, which is central to recent work in this field. We have a long-lasting interest in understanding the structure-function relationships underlining the potential of bis(thiosemicarbazonato) metal complexes for applications in multimodal imaging involving PET/SPECT/optical imaging modalities. The molecular design and the selectivity of this class of compounds for the evaluation of hypoxia is also discussed.

    23. Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Materials: Particles, Films, and Bulk Gels (pages 1398–1435)

      Zi-Quan Cao and Guo-Jie Wang

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500281

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      Compared with conventional single- or dual-stimuli-based polymer materials, multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials are more intriguing since more functions and finer modulations can be achieved through more parameters. Here we highlight the recent advances in this area and focus on three types of multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials, namely, multi-stimuli-responsive particles (micelles, micro/nanogels, vesicles, and hybrid particles), multi-stimuli-responsive films (polymer brushes, layer-by-layer polymer films, and porous membranes), and multi-stimuli-responsive bulk gels (hydrogels, organogels, and metallogels).

    24. Chemical Modification in the Design of Immobilized Enzyme Biocatalysts: Drawbacks and Opportunities (pages 1436–1455)

      Nazzoly Rueda, Jose C. S. dos Santos, Claudia Ortiz, Rodrigo Torres, Oveimar Barbosa, Rafael C. Rodrigues, Ángel Berenguer-Murcia and Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600007

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      Enzymes under control: Chemical modification of enzymes and immobilization used to be considered as separate ways to improve enzyme properties. This review shows how the coupled use of both tools may greatly improve the final biocatalyst performance.

    25. The Road to MOF-Related Functional Materials and Beyond: Desire, Design, Decoration, and Development (pages 1456–1476)

      Junying Chen and Yingwei Li

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500304

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      Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), usually self-assembled by metal ions or clusters and organic ligands, are porous materials with the characteristics of designable and tunable structures and topologies. Suitable postsynthetic methods via metal ions, organic linkers, or the cavities of the frameworks, could result in new materials with superior properties to the precursors, in aspects of catalysis, gas storage, and so on; thus, intentions to affect the future of mankind can be foreseen.

    26. Classical-Reaction-Driven Stereo- and Regioselective C(sp3)–H Functionalization of Aliphatic Amines (pages 1477–1488)

      Sujit Mahato and Chandan K. Jana

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600001

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      Direct C[BOND]H functionalization of aliphatic amines via the simple condensation–isomerization–addition (CIA) strategy has enormous potential to be considered for practical applications as it avoids the use of metals, oxidants and pre-functionalization steps. The current account describes the concept of the CIA strategy followed by a summary of recent developments from our group along with related examples from other groups in the field.

    27. Access to Spiro and Fused Indole Derivatives from α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes Enabled by N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalysis (pages 1489–1500)

      Weifang Tang and Ding Du

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600018

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      Expanding the scope: Spiro and fused indoles are attractive heterocyclic compounds with broad and promising activities in various therapeutic fields, and thus, have become the synthetic targets of organic chemists. This account describes recent progress in the synthesis of a series of spiro and fused indoles with diverse skeletons through N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed annulations of enals, α-bromoenals, or ynals.

    28. On the Mechanism of Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide–Alkyne Cycloaddition (pages 1501–1517)

      Lei Zhu, Christopher J. Brassard, Xiaoguang Zhang, Pampa M. Guha and Ronald J. Clark

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600002

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      Click conditions: The mechanistic understanding of copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) is summarized, with a particular emphasis on the significance of copper/azide interactions. Reaction variables that favor the formation of the azide/acetylide/copper(I) ternary complex in a configuration predisposed for cycloaddition lead to efficient CuAAC reactions. Electron-deficient terminal alkynes, chelating azides, and ligands that allow dinuclear cooperative catalysis and double as general bases all result in fast reactions. The mechanistic aspects of internal alkyne CuAAC reactions are briefly discussed, based on the limited data available to date.

    29. Pyrene-fused Acenes and Azaacenes: Synthesis and Applications (pages 1518–1530)

      Junbo Li, Shao Chen, Zilong Wang and Qichun Zhang

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600015

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      The as-reported pyrene-fused acenes and pyrene-fused azaacenes have been divided into three categories, according to the positions of pyrene units in the backbone of the acenes; namely, one-terminal, two-terminal, and center of the framework. Their key synthons, the synthetic strategies, and their possible applications have been summarized in this account.

    30. Advances in Organic Near-Infrared Materials and Emerging Applications (pages 1531–1548)

      Ji Qi, Wenqiang Qiao and Zhi Yuan Wang

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600013

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      This account describes our research work on organic near-infrared materials, in particular donor-acceptor small molecules, organometallics, and donor-acceptor polymers with bandgaps of less than 1.2 eV.

    31. Catalytic Dinitrogen Fixation to Form Ammonia at Ambient Reaction Conditions Using Transition Metal-Dinitrogen Complexes (pages 1549–1577)

      Yoshiaki Tanabe and Yoshiaki Nishibayashi

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600025

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      Catalytic transformation of molecular dinitrogen into ammonia or its equivalents, such as silylamine, using transition metal-dinitrogen complexes is summarized, providing new approaches to the development of novel nitrogen fixation under mild reaction conditions.

    32. Extending the Substrate Scope for the Asymmetric Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Minimally Functionalized Olefins by Using Biaryl Phosphite-Based Modular Ligand Libraries (pages 1578–1590)

      Oscar Pàmies, Marc Magre and Montserrat Diéguez

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600024

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      Designed for range: Progress in the successful design of biaryl phosphite based ligand libraries for the iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of minimally functionalized olefins is discussed.

    33. The Application of Graphene and Its Derivatives to Energy Conversion, Storage, and Environmental and Biosensing Devices (pages 1591–1634)

      Asif Ali Tahir, Habib Ullah, Pitchaimuthu Sudhagar, Mohd Asri Mat Teridi, Anitha Devadoss and Senthilarasu Sundaram

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500279

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      The applications of graphene and its derivatives in energy conversion, energy storage, environmental purification, and biosensing are comprehensively reviewed. After a brief introduction of graphene's unique structure, band structure engineering, and physical and chemical properties, the recent progress of graphene-based materials in the fields of energy conversion (e.g., photocatalytic/photoelectrochemical water splitting, CO2 reduction, dye-sensitized and organic solar cells, and photosensitizers in photovoltaic devices), energy storage (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), environmental purification, and biosensing is discussed.

    34. Recent Advances in the Reactions of 1,2-Allenic Ketones and α-Allenic Alcohols (pages 1635–1646)

      Xuesen Fan, Yan He and Xinying Zhang

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500301

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      Recent advances in the reactions of 1,2-allenic ketones and α-allenic alcohols are described. In these reactions, 1,2-allenic ketones and α-allenic alcohols have shown rich reactivity to provide expeditious syntheses of a number of functional organic molecules. These results demonstrate the great potential and prospects of allene derivatives for the synthetic community.

    35. Metallosupramolecular Structures Derived from a Series of Diphosphine-bridged Digold(I) Metalloligands with Terminal d-Penicillamine (pages 1647–1663)

      Nobuto Yoshinari and Takumi Konno

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600026

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      A new family of chiral heteroleptic digold(I) metalloligands, with mixed diphosphine and d-penicillaminate (d-pen), [Au2(PPh2(CH2)nPPh2)(d-pen-S)2]2–, and their application for the construction of chiral multinuclear and metallosupramolecular structures, is described.

    36. Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Sensing Applications of Gold Nanodots (pages 1664–1675)

      Rini Ravindranath, Prathik Roy and Huan-Tsung Chang

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600014

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      Photoluminescent gold nanodots prepared from etching of gold nanoparticles by thiol compounds are used for sensing, cell imaging, and inhibition of the growth of bacteria.

    37. Recent Progress on Nazarov Cyclizations: The Use of Iron Salts as Catalysts in Ionic Liquid Solvent Systems (pages 1676–1689)

      Toshiyuki Itoh, Toshiki Nokami and Motoi Kawatsura

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600021

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      Recent progress on Nazarov cyclizations and our results from reactions using iron catalysts in ionic liquid solvent systems are reviewed.

    38. Different Strategies for the Stabilization of Acenes and Acene Analogues (pages 1690–1700)

      Xueliang Shi and Chunyan Chi

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600031

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      Toward stable acenes and acene analogues! Acenes have received much attention due to their intriguing properties and potential applications in organic electronics. However, the poor stability of acenes is the prominent issue that limits their application. In this account, we summarize different strategies developed in our group to construct and stabilize acenes and acene analogues.

    39. Transition Metal-Participated Synthesis and Utilization of N-containing Heterocycles: Exploring for Nitrogen Sources (pages 1701–1714)

      Mingchun Gao and Bin Xu

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600020

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      Various nitrogen sources, including amines, amides, hydrazones, pyrimidines, isocyanides, and copper nitrate, have been developed for the efficient construction of N-containing heterocycles via reactions in which transition metals participate. These promising pharmalogically interesting heterocycles could be utilized in medicinal chemistry.

    40. Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes for Biological Sensing and Imaging (pages 1715–1740)

      Ruoyu Zhan and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500308

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      Functionalized conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are polymeric materials composed of π-conjugated backbones, ionic side chains, and functional moieties. They inherit the water-dispersity, unique optical, biocompatible, and therapeutic properties of CPEs, with specific functionalities for sensing, imaging, and biomedical applications. This account describes the recent progress in the synthesis and applications of functionalized CPEs.