Science literacy includes understanding technology. This raises questions about the role of technology in science education as well as in general education. To explore these questions, this article begins with a brief history of technology education as it relates to science education and discusses how new conceptions of science and technological literacy are moving beyond the dichotomies that formerly characterized the relationship between science and technology education. It describes how Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the National Science Education Standards, and the Standards for Technological Literacy have been making a case for introducing technology studies into general education. Examples of specific technological concepts fundamental for science literacy are provided. Using one example from the design of structures, the article examines how understanding about design (i. e., understanding constraints, trade-offs, and failures) is relevant to science literacy. This example also raises teaching and learning issues, including the extent to which technology-based activities can address scientific and technological concepts. The article also examines how research can provide guides for potential interactions between science and technology and concludes with reflections on the changes needed, such as the creation of curriculum models that establish fruitful interactions between science and technology education, for students to attain an understanding of technology. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 715–729, 2001