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Abstract

A group of 15 low SES 14-year-olds, who had not yet reached Piaget's stage of “formal operations”, were taught to design controlled experiments and to criticize poorly controlled experiments. As judged by performance on a nonstandardized text, they learned to do this well, and significantly outperformed matched controls. (p <.001). The results were interpreted with reference to Inhelder and Piaget's work on the origins of scientific thinking.