Relationships of student characteristics to student performance and attitudes were explored by meta-analysis for studies conducted in kindergarten through twelfth grade since 1960. Six student characteristics (general ability, language ability, mathematics ability, socio-economic status, gender, and race) were selected for inclusion in this investigation based on their frequency of use in the literature. Studies in which these student characteristics were associated with student science performance or science attitudes were included in this investigation. Associations of ability and socio-economic status with science performance and attitudes were summarized by correlational analysis. An effect size measure was used to summarize associations of gender and race with science performance and attitudes.