An exploratory study which focused on teachers responses to the demand for role change brought about by the implementation of a new course is reported. Two procedures used to gather data were participant observation and open-ended interviews. Role theory, symbolic interaction, and schools as organizations were used as the frameworks for data analysis in this discursive qualitative study. The data reported describe the teachers' perceptions of factors influencing their willingness to change behaviors in order to comply with the role demands of the innovation. Hypotheses grounded in the data were generated and tied together into a theory which is illustrated by a structural model. The model shows interrelationships of factors influencing the teachers to change roles at the time of initiation of the new course through the ultimate incorporation of the innovation.