Ideal and actual outcomes from precollege pascal instruction



More systematic study of the relationship between instructional practice and learning outcomes are needed before we can build powerful instructional theories. In this study, we relate programming proficiency to instructional practice in 14 Pascal programming classes at the High School level. We found that instructional practices involves (a) extensive on-line access, (b) explicit instruction, and (c) extensive feedback. These results help clarify the nature of time-on-task and encourage researchers to examine explicit instruction more closely.