• FRID EV;
  • front and rear wheel independent drive;
  • load movement;
  • driving and braking torque distributions;
  • slip ratio;
  • wheel spin;
  • wheel lock;
  • low friction coefficient


Wheel lock and spin control methods suitable for front and rear wheel independent drive type electric vehicles (FRID EVs) are studied here. Wheel locks and spins occur easily when braking and driving operations such as deceleration and acceleration are performed on bad roads with low friction coefficient such as wet or frozen roads. The methods studied here are characterized by using the structural feature of FRID EVs which can freely distribute the driving and braking torques to front and rear wheels according to running and road surface conditions. These wheel locks and spins occurring when braking and driving on bad roads are controlled by properly distributing the braking and driving torques to front and rear wheels in consideration of the load movement caused by braking operations and slip ratios of the front and rear wheel sides. The effectiveness of the wheel lock and spin methods studied here is verified through simulations and experiments on various roads with a low friction coefficient using a prototype EV with the FRID structure. Copyright © 2009 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.