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Keywords:

  • apparent impedance;
  • cascaded events;
  • dynamic simulation;
  • fuzzy inference system;
  • steady state security assessment;
  • zone 3 relay

Abstract

Undesirable zone 3 relay operations caused by unexpected loading conditions can contribute to the cascaded events, leading to catastrophic outages. Identifying the basic patterns of zone 3 relay operations in advance is an effective way to help prevent cascaded events. The postcontingency impedances seen by zone 3 relays can be calculated on line in a steady state security assessment framework. However, their accuracy is inadequate compared with the postcontingency apparent impedance obtained from off-line time domain dynamic simulations. This paper proposes a fuzzy inference system (FIS) to correct discrepancies between the postcontingency apparent impedances obtained from the results of steady state security assessment and the corresponding values obtained by time-domain simulations. The postcontingency apparent impedances obtained from the results of steady state security assessment can be corrected on line using correction terms provided by the FIS. The dynamic model of a 200-bus system is used to validate the performance of the proposed FIS. Copyright © 2009 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.