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Abstract

An evaluation of over 350 patients in a study of congenital contractures of the joints (arthrogryposis) included a review of family, pregnancy, and delivery histories for teratogenic exposures. Fifteen out of the total 350 patients studied had a possible teratogenic exposure: an infectious agent (viral or bacterial), maternal drug or toxin ingestion, chronic maternal neurologic or muscular illness, or a direct physical insult such as a structural uterine anomaly. Literature was reviewed for all human and animal cases reported with congenital contractures of the joints with an associated teratogenic insult. Those findings are discussed here.