Teratogens associated with congenital contractures in humans and in animals


  • J. G. Hall MD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Washington, Children's Orthopedic Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98105
    • Clinical Genetics Unit, Grace Hospital, 4490 Oak Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H, 3V5
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  • S. D. Reed

    1. Department of Medicine, University of Washington Clinical Genetics Service, Seattle, Washington 98105
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An evaluation of over 350 patients in a study of congenital contractures of the joints (arthrogryposis) included a review of family, pregnancy, and delivery histories for teratogenic exposures. Fifteen out of the total 350 patients studied had a possible teratogenic exposure: an infectious agent (viral or bacterial), maternal drug or toxin ingestion, chronic maternal neurologic or muscular illness, or a direct physical insult such as a structural uterine anomaly. Literature was reviewed for all human and animal cases reported with congenital contractures of the joints with an associated teratogenic insult. Those findings are discussed here.