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Biocompatibility evaluation of tissue-engineered valved venous conduit by reseeding autologous bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells into heterogeneous decellularized venous matrix



Clinical treatment of chronic deep venous insufficiency remains difficult despite the availability of various therapies. Previous experimental efforts have demonstrated that the tissue-engineered valvedvenous conduit (TEVV) is a promising option to replace the damaged venous valve. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the TEVV by reseeding bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells into acellular matrix according to International Standard ISO10993, and to clarify their interactions with blood, the local effect after implantation both in vitro and vivo, and immunogenicity. The results showed that the 2-cm long TEVV did not cause haemolysis in vitro and remained patent without thrombosis formation in vivo. However, the luminal surface of TEVV was partially covered by multilayer cells. Compared with the native ovine femoral vein segment, the TEVV beneath the mouse skin produced significant mononuclear cell infiltration, with serum interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α similar to normal. The TEVV maintained its structural integrity, while the native ovine femoral vein segments fell apart at postoperative week nine. The TEVV implantation did not change serum immunoglobulin G. In addition, the seeds and extracts of the scaffold did not affect the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the histocompatibility, haemocompatibility and immunogenicity of this TEVV are acceptable owing to complete removal of the cellular components of autologous seeds and residues of chemical regents, thus providing an experimental basis for further clinical translation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.