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Keywords:

  • bioreactor;
  • tissue engineering;
  • bone;
  • human bone marrow stem cells;
  • perfusion;
  • online measurement;
  • in vivo

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate a semi-automated perfusion bioreactor system for the production of clinically relevant amounts of human tissue-engineered bone. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) of eight donors were dynamically seeded and proliferated in a perfusion bioreactor system in clinically relevant volumes (10 cm3) of macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds (BCP particles, 2–6 mm). Cell load and distribution were shown using methylene blue staining. MTT staining was used to demonstrate viability of the present cells. After 20 days of cultivation, the particles were covered with a homogeneous layer of viable cells. Online oxygen measurements confirmed the proliferation of hBMSCs in the bioreactor. After 20 days of cultivation, the hybrid constructs became interconnected and a dense layer of extracellular matrix was present, as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the hBMSCs showed differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage as was indicated by collagen type I production and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. We observed no significant differences in osteogenic gene expression profiles between static and dynamic conditions like ALP, BMP2, Id1, Id2, Smad6, collagen type I, osteocalcin, osteonectin and S100A4. For the donors that showed bone formation, dynamically cultured hybrid constructs showed the same amount of bone as the statically cultured hybrid constructs. Based on these results, we conclude that a semi-automated perfusion bioreactor system is capable of producing clinically relevant and viable amounts of human tissue-engineered bone that exhibit bone-forming potential after implantation in nude mice. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.