State of the art and future directions of scaffold-based bone engineering from a biomaterials perspective

Authors

  • Dietmar Werner Hutmacher,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Dr 1, Singapore 11757
    2. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074
    3. Chair for Regenerative Medicine, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
    • Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Dr 1, Singapore 117574.
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  • Jan Thorsten Schantz,

    1. Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Dr 1, Singapore 11757
    2. Division of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital and National University of Singapore
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  • Christopher Xu Fu Lam,

    1. Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Dr 1, Singapore 11757
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  • Kim Cheng Tan,

    1. Temasek Engineering School, Temasek Polytechnic, 21 Tampines Avenue 1, Singapore 529757
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  • Thiam Chye Lim

    1. Division of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital and National University of Singapore
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Abstract

Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering aims to repair/regenerate bone defects. Such a treatment concept involves seeding autologous osteogenic cells throughout a biodegradable scaffold to create a scaffold–cell hybrid that may be called a tissue-engineered construct (TEC). A variety of materials and scaffolding fabrication techniques for bone tissue engineering have been investigated over the past two decades. This review aims to discuss the advances in bone engineering from a scaffold material point of view. In the first part the reader is introduced to the basic principles of bone engineering. The important properties of the biomaterials and the scaffold design in the making of tissue engineered bone constructs are discussed in detail, with special emphasis placed on the new material developments, namely composites made of synthetic polymers and calcium phosphates. Advantages and limitations of these materials are analysed along with various architectural parameters of scaffolds important for bone tissue engineering, e.g. porosity, pore size, interconnectivity and pore-wall microstructures. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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