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Keywords:

  • skeletal muscle tissue engineering;
  • biophysical stimulation;
  • muscle progenitor cells;
  • cell line vs. primary cell source;
  • maturation;
  • sarcomere assembly

Abstract

Skeletal muscle tissue engineering still does not result in the desired functional properties and texture as preferred for regenerative medicine and meat production applications. Electrical stimulation has been appropriately used as a tool to advance muscle cell maturation in vitro, thereby simulating nerve stimulation, as part of the muscle cell niche in vivo. We first investigated the effects of electrical stimulation protocols in two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of C2C12 and translated these protocols to a three-dimensional (3D) model system, based on a collagen type I/Matrigel hydrogel. More importantly, we addressed the ongoing debate of the translation of results found in cell lines (C2C12) to a primary cell source [muscle progenitor cells (MPCs)] in our 3D system. Striking differences in maturation level were found between the different cell sources. Constructs with MPCs were much more mature than C2C12 constructs, based on developed cross-striations and expression levels of mature myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Overall, electrical stimulation, when optimally timed, accelerated sarcomere assembly in both 2D and 3D. In addition, MPC constructs were more susceptible to the electrical stimulus, resulting in a shift of MHC expression to slower isoforms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.