• human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells;
  • human periosteal-derived stem cells;
  • co-culture;
  • bone tissue engineering;
  • osteogenesis;
  • neovascularization


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow and periosteum are often used as cellular sources for bone tissue engineering. This study showed that co-cultured human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and periosteal-derived stem cells (hPCs) resulted in a synergistic effect on osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Compared to hBMSCs and hPCs, co-culturing MSCs showed abundant mineralization, robust calcium deposition, steadily increasing ALP activity, and upgraded mRNA expression of osteogenic specific genes (COL1A1, BMP-2, osteopontin, osteocalcin) in vitro. Eight weeks after implantation of cellular β-TCP scaffolds in immunodeficient mice, similar synergistic effects were confirmed during in vivo evaluation of total new bone formation, mature bone formation, and neovascularization. Based on these findings, the use of co-cultured hBMSCs and hPCs can be recommended as a promising new approach for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.