Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a positive regulator and plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. We demonstrate that VEGF was highly expressed in cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and the high expression level was maintained during prolonged culture periods (checked up to passage 10). We also confirmed that in vivo hMSCs engrafted into immunodeficient mice could survive and secreted human VEGF. These findings suggest that implantation of hMSCs is a practical means as a source of VEGF production and might be effective in neoangiogenesis. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.