Tissue factor: a mini-review



Tissue factor (TF) is historically known as the trigger of the coagulation cascade. This integral membrane glycoprotein forms a ternary complex with factor VIIa (FVIIa) and zymogen factor (FX), which is then activated to factor Xa (FXa). The latter cleaves prothrombin into thrombin (FIIa), which in turn activates fibrinogen in fibrin monomers. What is less known is its additional non-haemostatic roles in inflammation, tumour growth and angiogenesis. This aspect will be developed here. TF, as a transmembrane protein, has a signalling effect requiring FVIIa. TF–FVIIa complex activates G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) and therefore modulates various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation and survival, gene transcription and protein translation. In this review we will first highlight, using recent structural data, the ‘potentially’ active domain able to modulate the triggered intracellular response. We also will focus on the still emerging and promising results deciphering the diverse locations in which TF appears. We conclude with a description of an emerging and atypical use of tissue factor in platelet gel surgery for sinus augmentation. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.