Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior. The researchers developed a new questionnaire for Hungarian learners and administered it to secondary school students, university students, and adult language learners. Their structural equation models show that strong instrumental goals and international posture, together with positive future self-guides, are prerequisites for use of effective self-regulatory strategies, which in turn play an important role in influencing autonomous use of traditional and computer-assisted learning resources. Findings reveal no major structural differences between the groups, which suggests that the model is applicable to the most important language learner populations in the context investigated. Efficient management of time and boredom, as well as proactivity in seeking learning opportunities, were found to be necessary to promote autonomous use of traditional learning resources. In contrast, satiation control and time management were not important determiners of independent use of modern learning technology. Results indicate that in order to exploit the affordances of learning technology, a proactive approach to locating and using these learning resources is necessary.