The Brazilian economy indicates great potential for future economic growth. An increasing and affluent middle class, expanding exports, and foreign reserves are testimonies of Brazil's recent accomplishments. The country, however, still faces a number of challenges that may compromise its sustainable long-term economic goals and objectives. This article focuses on the Luiz Inacio “Lula” da Silva government's economic performance. The article's main findings show increasing bottlenecks being created as a result of the Lula government's eight years of low economic growth rates, which have penalized the country's competitiveness. The newly elected president, Dilma Rousseff, will inherit a substantial investment deficit in the areas of infrastructure, education, health care, research and development (R&D), and innovation, as well as Brazil's worst public debt/gross domestic product (GDP) ratio in the past 100 years. These conditions will prevent Brazil from growing and developing at faster rates. This article also elaborates on Dilma Rousseff's most recent statements and discusses likely future paths for the Brazilian economy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.