This study investigated the combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity of copper monochloride in rats. The test substance was administered once daily by gavage at 0, 1.3, 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day. Male rats were dosed for a total of 30 days beginning 14 days before mating. Female rats were dosed from 2 weeks before mating to day 3 of lactation throughout the mating and gestation period. At 80 mg/kg/day, deaths were observed in 3 out of 12 females. There was a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of clinical signs and a reduction in the food consumption. Hematological and serum biochemical investigations revealed a decrease in the red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and serum total protein levels and an increase in the white blood cell and platelets in males, and a decrease in the MCH and an increase in the platelets in females. Histopathological examination showed an increased incidence of squamous cell hyperplasia of the stomach in both genders as well as increased hematopoiesis of the femur in males. There was an increase in the number of icteric and runt pups at birth. At 20 mg/kg/day, there was an increase in the incidence of clinical signs and squamous cell hyperplasia of the stomach in both genders. At 5 mg/kg/day, an increase in the incidence of squamous cell hyperplasia of the stomach was observed in females. There were no adverse effects in the lowest group in both genders. Based on these findings, the no-observed-adverse-effect levels of copper monochloride were concluded to be 5 mg/kg/day in male rats and 1.3 mg/kg/day in female rats for general toxicity and 20 mg/kg/day for reproductive/developmental toxicity. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009.