• Raid;
  • toxicity;
  • bioaccumulation;
  • glucose-6-phosphatase;
  • lactic acid dehydrogenase


Toxicity and bioaccumulation of the insecticide “Raid” was determined to assess total animal dietary exposures in a nonoccupational environment. The study focused primarily on dietary exposure concentrations (25–960 μg/g) of the ingredients of Raid administered to rats for 10 days. Tissue concentrations of the insecticide were determined by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, whereas established methods were used to assess the tissue levels of glucose-6-phosphate and lactic acid dehydrogenase. Results show that animal mortality progressively increased with increasing concentrations while growth (in weight) decreased. Bioaccumulation of the insecticide in the tissues was in the order of lipid > muscle > liver > brain. The indices of toxicity showed no significant effect in brain, but significant reduction of glucose-6-phosphatase and lactic acid dehydrogenase levels were observed in muscle and liver. These results suggest an inhibition of some key metabolic enzymes resulting from accumulation of the insecticide components in the tissues. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009.