In vitro toxicology of ambient particulate matter: Correlation of cellular effects with particle size and components

Authors

  • Alexandra Kroll,

    Corresponding author
    1. Gastroenterological Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Medicine B, University of Münster (WWU), Domagkstraβe 3a, 48149 Münster, Germany
    Current affiliation:
    1. Environmental Toxicology, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, POB 611, Dübendorf 8600, Switzerland
    • Gastroenterological Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Medicine B, University of Münster (WWU), Domagkstraβe 3a, 48149 Münster, Germany
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  • Johanna K. Gietl,

    1. Climatology Working Group, University of Münster (WWU), Robert-Koch-Str. 26, 48149 Münster, Germany
    Current affiliation:
    1. National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.
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  • Gerhard A. Wiesmüller,

    1. Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissues, Domagkstrasse 11, 48149 Munster, Germany
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  • Andreas Günsel,

    1. Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissues, Domagkstrasse 11, 48149 Munster, Germany
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  • Wendel Wohlleben,

    1. BASF SE, Polymer Physics, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany
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  • Jürgen Schnekenburger,

    1. Gastroenterological Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Medicine B, University of Münster (WWU), Domagkstraβe 3a, 48149 Münster, Germany
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  • Otto Klemm

    1. Climatology Working Group, University of Münster (WWU), Robert-Koch-Str. 26, 48149 Münster, Germany
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Abstract

High concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) have been associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality among exposed populations. Although certain components of PM were suggested to influence these effects, no clear-cut correlation was determined thus far. One of the possible modes of action is the induction of oxidative stress by inhaled PM triggering inflammatory responses. Therefore, the in vitro formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in three cell lines in the presence of five subfractions of PM10, collected in Münster, Germany was investigated. The PM components chloride, nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, 68 chemical elements, and endotoxin were quantified. The highest concentration of endotoxin was found in particles of 0.42–1.2 μm aerodynamic diameters, and therefore probably subject to long-range transport. Intracellular ROS formation in three well established mammalian cell lines (CaCo2, human; MDCK, canine; RAW264.7, mouse) only correlated positively with particle size. The two smallest PM size fractions provoked the highest rise in ROS. However, the latter did not correlate with the concentration of any PM components investigated. The smallest PM size fractions significantly dominated the number of particles. Therefore, the particle number may be most effective in inducing oxidative stress in vitro. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.

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