Zebrafish neurotoxicity from aphantoxins—cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1

Authors

  • Delu Zhang,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
    2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, People's Republic of China
    3. Department of biology, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China
    • State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
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  • Chunxiang Hu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
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  • Gaohong Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
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  • Dunhai Li,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
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  • Genbao Li,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
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  • Yongding Liu

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
    • State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
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Abstract

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (A. flos-aquae), a cyanobacterium frequently encountered in water blooms worldwide, is source of neurotoxins known as PSPs or aphantoxins that present a major threat to the environment and to human health. Although the molecular mechanism of PSP action is well known, many unresolved questions remain concerning its mechanisms of toxicity. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the major component toxins were the gonyautoxins1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5, 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and the neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). The LD50 of the aphantoxin preparation was determined to be 11.33 μg/kg (7.75 μg saxitoxin equivalents (STXeq) per kg) following intraperitoneal injection of zebrafish (Danio rerio). To address the neurotoxicology of the aphantoxin preparation, zebrafish were injected with low and high sublethal doses of A. flos-aquae DC-1 toxins 7.73 and 9.28 μg /kg (5.3 and 6.4 μg STXeq/kg, respectively) and brain tissues were analyzed by electron microscopy and RT-PCR at different timepoints postinjection. Low-dose aphantoxin exposure was associated with chromatin condensation, cell-membrane blebbing, and the appearance of apoptotic bodies. High-dose exposure was associated with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitochondrial swelling, and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. At early timepoints (3 h) many cells exhibited characteristic features of both apoptosis and necrosis. At later timepoints apoptosis appeared to predominate in the low-dose group, whereas necrosis predominated in the high-dose group. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA levels of the apoptosis-related genes encoding p53, Bax, caspase-3, and c-Jun were upregulated after aphantoxin exposure, but there was no evidence of DNA laddering; apoptosis could take place by pathways independent of DNA fragmentation. These results demonstrate that aphantoxin exposure can cause cell death in zebrafish brain tissue, with low doses inducing apoptosis and higher doses inducing necrosis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.

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