Lanthanum chloride promotes mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in primary cultured rat astrocytes
Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011
Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company
Volume 28, Issue 9, pages 489–497, September 2013
How to Cite
Yang, J., Liu, Q., Qi, M., Lu, S., Wu, S., Xi, Q. and Cai, Y. (2013), Lanthanum chloride promotes mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in primary cultured rat astrocytes. Environ. Toxicol., 28: 489–497. doi: 10.1002/tox.20738
- Issue published online: 26 AUG 2013
- Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 APR 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 23 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Received: 17 JAN 2011
- National Natural Science Foundation of China. Grant Number: 30800925.
- Natural Science Foundation of Province Liaoning, China. Grant Number: 2005225008-3
Population surveys and animal experiments have shown that rare earth elements (REEs) cause neurological defects. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying these effects are still unclear. Given that lanthanum is commonly used for investigating into REEs-induced neurological defects, this study chose lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) to show that LaCl3 promotes mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in primary cultured rat astrocytes by regulating expression of Bcl-2 family proteins. The main findings of this study are (1) LaCl3 treatment (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mM for 12–48 h) induced the astrocytes damages with a concentration-dependent manner, which were confirmed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase release assays, and morphological examination. (2) A 24 h treatment of LaCl3 concentration-dependently decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol, elevated caspase 9 and 3 expression, and promoted astrocyte apoptosis. (3) LaCl3 treatment increased the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bax and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, which in turn broke the balance among pro-apoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to astrocyte apoptosis. Our results indicate that LaCl3 alters Bcl-2 family protein expressions, which in turn promote mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and thus astrocytic damage. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28: 489–497, 2013.