Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is the most extensively used general anesthetic-sedative agent and it is employed in clinical patients. It has been shown that propofol exhibits anticancer activities. However, there is no available information to address propofol-induced cytotoxic effects and affected gene expressions on murine leukemia cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of propofol on the levels of protein and gene expression, which are associated with apoptotic death in mouse leukemia RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Results indicated that propofol induced cell morphological changes, cytotoxicity, and induction of apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that propofol promoted Fas, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and −3 active form and Bax levels, but inhibited Bcl-xl protein level which led to cell apoptosis. Furthermore, cDNA microarray assay indicated that propofol significantly enhanced 5 gene expressions (Gm4884; Gm10883; Lce1c; Lrg1; and LOC100045878) and significantly suppressed 26 gene expressions (Gm10679; Zfp617; LOC621831; LOC621831; Gm5929; Snord116; Gm3994; LOC380994; Gm5592; LOC380994; Gm4638; LOC280487; Gm4638; Tex24; A530064D06Rik; BC094916; EG668725; Gm189; Hist2h3c2; Gm8020; Snord115; Gm3079; Olfr198; Tdh; Snord115; and Olfr1249). Based on these observations, propofol-altered apoptosis-related proteins might result from induction of apoptotic gene expression and inhibition of cell growth gene expression, which finally led to apoptosis in a mouse leukemia cell line (RAW 264.7) in vitro. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28: 471–478, 2013.