Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which belongs to the degradation product of many perfluorinated compounds, is on the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and is currently detected in both wildlife and humans. The consequence of gestational and lactational exposure to PFOS on prediabetes effect in offspring was investigated in rats in the present study. Maternal rats were treated with vehicle, 0.5 mg/kg/day or 1.5 mg/kg/day PFOS respectively from gestation day 0 to postnatal day 21. The glucose and lipid metabolism effects were investigated on the offspring in adulthood. The gestational and lactational exposure to PFOS led to low body weight from birth to weaning, and evoked signs of a prediabetic state, with elevated fasting serum insulin and leptin level, impaired glucose tolerance, though the fasting serum glucose and glycosylated serum protein level were normal. Abnormal lipid homeostasis was also observed by the phenomenon of hepatic steatosis and increased gonadal fat pad weight. However, the circulating serum level of fasting triglyceride and cholesterol level were no different from controls. Our results suggested that developmental exposure to PFOS may contribute to glucose and lipid metabolic disorder in adulthood. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28: 532–542, 2013.