3,6-Dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (3,6-DNBeP) was identified as a new potent mutagen toward Salmonella strains in surface soil and airborne particles. Because data of in vivo examination of the genotoxicity of 3,6-DNBeP are limited, micronucleus test was performed in peripheral blood and bone marrow, and comet assay in the lungs of mice treated with 3,6-DNBeP. In male ICR mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 3,6-DNBeP, the frequency of micronuclated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was increased in the peripheral blood and bone marrow after 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to controls, the highest dose of 3,6-DNBeP (40 mg/kg B.W.) induced 7.3- and 8.7-fold increases of MNPCE frequency in the peripheral blood and bone marrow, respectively. Furthermore, when 3,6-DNBeP was intratracheally (i.t.) instilled to male ICR mice, 3,6-DNBeP at the highest dose of 0.1 mg/kg body exhibited 3.1-fold increase of DNA tail moment in the lungs at 3 h after the instillation compared to controls. The values of DNA tail moment at 9 and 24 h after the instillation were increased up to 3.5 and 4.2-fold, respectively. These data indicate that 3,6-DNBeP is genotoxic to mammalians in in vivo and suggest that 3,6-DNBeP may be a carcinogenic compound present in the human environment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28: 588–594, 2013.