Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical which has been shown to be able to modulate the endocrine system of various organisms by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of 4-NP on steroid and thyroid hormone levels in sexually immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus), a protandrous hermaphrodite species. For this, the fish were injected with ascending doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg g−1 body weight) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) or vehicle during 2 weeks. After 7 and 14 days the fish were anesthetized, blood sample were collected and plasma steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The result showed that 4-NP induced a significant increase in 17β-etradiol levels at dose 10 μg g−1, while the levels of this hormone in the higher doses decreased compared with the control group. However, 4-NP treatment did not have any significant effect on plasma levels of testosterone. In addition, it was observed that 4-NP affect the level of thyroid hormones in fish. Plasma thyroxine levels increased in a dose-dependent manner after 7 and 14 days of the exposure. In contrast, a significant decrease in triiodothyronine levels was observed during the experiment period. Moreover, no significant change was detected for thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 4-NP-treated fish. These results indicated that 4-NP could lead to disturb the balance of steroid and thyroid hormones with potential consequences for sexually immature male yellowfin seabream. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 459–465, 2014.