Present investigation was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of a novel Semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD), isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1, in the male reproductive system of BALB/c mice. Animals were administered 50 mg/kg b.wt. (i.p.) SQGD 2 h before whole body γ-irradiation (10 Gy). Radiation-induced cellular toxicity and its modulation by SQGD pretreatment was evaluated in the mice testes by quantitative histological and protein expression analysis. SQGD pretreatment protects irradiated mice from radiation-induced testicular atrophy and germ cells degeneration, which may lead to emptiness of seminiferous tubules. Significant decrease in P53 and P21(Cip/WAF-1) expression was observed in the irradiated mice pretreated (2 h) by SQGD at 6 h compared with only irradiated mice. However, contrary to P53, expressions of P21 at latter time, that is, 24–72 h was found to be increased significantly in the irradiated mice pretreated by SQGD. Significant increase in the intact PARP-1 protein expression were observed in the testes of the mice pretreated by SQGD 2 h before irradiation at 24–72 h compared with the only irradiated mice, whereas significant increase in PARP-1 cleaved fragment was noticed at 24 h. Similarly, significant increase in NF-kB and BCL-2/BAX expressions ratio was noticed in SQGD-treated mice (± irradiation) compared with irradiated mice, suggested a role of SQGD in the activation of prosurvival signaling in the testicular germinal cells population of the irradiated mice and thus contributed to protection against lethal γ-irradiation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 558–567, 2014.