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The mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide tattoo induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish brain, liver, and kidney

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Abstract

Tattoo belongs to the group of carbamate fungicides and contains Mancozeb (ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate) as its main constituent. The toxicity of Mancozeb to living organisms, particularly fish, is not resolved. This work investigated the effects of 96 h of exposure to 3, 5, or 10 mg L−1 of Tattoo (corresponding to 0.9, 1.5, or 3 mg L−1 of Mancozeb) on the levels of oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant enzyme system of brain, liver, and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus). In liver, Tattoo exposure resulted in increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70%–79%, catalase by 23%–52% and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 49%. The content of protein carbonyls (CP) in liver was also enhanced by 92%–125% indicating extensive damage to proteins. Similar increases in CP levels (by 98%–111%) accompanied by reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (by 13%–15%) was observed in kidney of fish exposed to Tattoo; however, SOD activity increased by 37% in this tissue after treatment with 10 mg L−1 Tattoo. In brain, a rise in lipid peroxide level (by 29%) took place after exposure to 10 mg L−1 Tattoo and was accompanied by elevation of high-molecular mass thiols (by 14%). Tattoo exposure also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in glutathione reductase activity (by 26%–37%) in brain. The data collectively show that exposure of goldfish to 3–10 mg L−1 of the carbamate fungicide Tattoo resulted in the development of mild oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant defense systems in goldfish tissues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 1227–1235, 2014.

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