• bisphenol A;
  • combined exposure;
  • sperm count and morphology;
  • comet assay;
  • histology

Bisphenol A (BPA) is employed in the manufacturing of epoxy, polyester-styrene, and polycarbonate resins, which are used for the production of baby and water bottles and reusable containers, food and beverage packing, dental fillings and sealants. The study was designed to examine the effects of 8-week exposure (a full cycle of spermatogenesis) to BPA alone and in a combination with X-irradiation on the reproductive organs and germ cells of adult and pubescent male mice. Pzh:Sfis male mice were exposed to BPA (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or X-rays (0.05 Gy) or to a combination of both (0.05 Gy + 5 mg/kg bw BPA). The following parameters were examined: sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and DNA damage in male gametes. Both BPA and X-rays alone diminished sperm quality. BPA exposure significantly reduced sperm count in pubescent males compared to adult mice, with degenerative changes detected in seminiferous epithelium. This may suggest a higher susceptibility of germ cells of younger males to BPA action. Combined BPA with X-ray treatment enhanced the harmful effect induced by BPA alone in male germ cells of adult males, whereas low-dose irradiation showed sometimes protective or additive effects in pubescent mice.