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Keywords:

  • lead (Pb2+);
  • erythrocytes;
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS);
  • oxidative stress;
  • garlic extract;
  • membrane thiol;
  • apoptosis

ABSTRACT

Sequelae of chronic lead (Pb2+) toxicity includes anemia that is partially due to early death of erythrocytes characterized by excess accumulation of ROS and downregulation of antioxidant system causing oxidative stress and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In this study, pathophysiological based therapeutic application of garlic was evaluated against erythrocyte death. Results suggest that garlic administration prevents oxidative stress, restored the antioxidant balance in erythrocytes of Pb2+ exposed mice. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that activity of both scramblase and aminophospholipid translocase could be changed by modifying the critical sulfhydryl groups in presence of dithiothreitol during Pb2+ exposure. Data also indicated that garlic treatment in Pb2+ exposed mice exhibited sharp decline in PS exposure and increase in erythrocyte membrane thiol group followed by increase in aminophospholipid translocase activity and decline in scramblase activity. Findings indicated that garlic has the ability to restore the lifespan of erythrocytes during Pb2+ exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 396–410, 2015.