• metabolomics;
  • fish;
  • chlorpyrifos;
  • plasma;
  • acetylcholinesterase inhibition


This study investigated the effects of waterborne chlorpyrifos with concentrations of 1 and 100 µg/L for L and H-groups, respectively, on metabolome profiles of carp plasma using 1H-NMR. Principal component analysis suggests that chlorpyrifos exposure firstly affected in L and H-groups on day 2 or 4, and followed a second effect in both exposure groups on day 14. Levels of metabolites related to the energy production in the body, such as glucose, glycerol, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lactate, alanine, 3-D-hydroxybutyrates and acetoacetate, significantly changed by exposures of chlorpyrifos. Those results suggest that energy production was severely affected in carp. The exposure could also be highly elevated ammonia levels especially in H-group due to severe convulsion in muscle caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 253–260, 2015.