• Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus);
  • herbicides;
  • toxicity;
  • biomarkers;
  • lipid peroxidation


Fish are relatively sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment, including increasing pollution. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of contamination with the pendimethalin-based herbicide; Stomp® 50% EC (50% pendimethalin as emulsive concentrate) on adults of the monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. A total of 260 fish with body weights of 90 ± 5.0 g were used in the determination of the 96-h LC50 value and of the impacts of acute exposure to pendimethalin on physiological parameters, and oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers. The 96-h median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) value of pendimethalin for monosex Nile tilapia was determined as 4.92 mg/L. Abnormal behavioral responses of the fish and the toxic symptoms of pendimethalin exposure are described. Acute exposure to pendimethalin induced leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia, and hyperglycemia, but resulted in nonsignificant changes in other hemato-biochemical parameters. Moreover, pendimethalin increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased levels of reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase in both liver and gill tissues, in a time-dependent manner, with maximum alterations observed in the gills rather than the liver. We conclude that although pendimethalin is moderately toxic, it does not cause hepatorenal toxicity. However, this herbicide pollutant induces major disturbances to the antioxidant system; induction of oxidative stress and LPO is the proposed toxicodynamic pathway for such stress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 430–438, 2015.