Comparative assessment of in vitro and in vivo toxicity of azinphos methyl and its commercial formulation



The toxic effects of Gusathion (GUS), which is a commercial organophosphate (OP) pesticide, and also its active ingredient, azinphos methyl (AzM), are evaluated comparatively with in vitro and in vivo studies. Initially, the 96-h LC50 values of AzM and GUS were estimated for two different life stages of Xenopus laevis, embryos, and tadpoles. The actual AzM concentrations in exposure media were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. Also, the sub-lethal effects of these compounds to tadpoles were determined 24 h later at exposure concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L using selected biomarker enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotrasferase. Differences in AChE inhibition capacities of AzM and GUS were evaluated under in vitro conditions between frogs and fish in the second part of this study. The AChE activities in a pure electrical eel AChE solution and in brain homogenates of adult Cyprinus carpio, Pelophylax ridibundus, and X. laevis were assayed after in vitro exposure to 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/L concentrations of AzM and GUS. According to in vivo studies AChE, CaE and GST are important biomarkers of the effect of OP exposure while CaE may be more effective in short-term, low-concentration exposures. The results of in vitro studies showed that amphibian brain AChEs were relatively more resistant to OP exposure than fish AChEs. The resistance may be the cause of the lower toxicity/lethality of OP compounds to amphibians than to fish. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 1091–1101, 2015.