The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways involved in the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 regulation induced by nonylphenol (NP) in mouse testis Sertoli TM4 cells. Our results showed that treatment of TM4 cells with NP increased COX-2 protein expression and interleukin-6 (IL)-6 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), attenuated NP-induced ROS production, COX-2 expression, and IL-6 and PGE2 release in TM4 cells. Exposure to NP stimulated activation of NF-κB, whereas the NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, attenuated NP-enhanced COX-2 expression and IL-6 and PGE2 release in TM4 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, NAC blocked NP-induced activation of NF-κB. In addition, inhibition of COX-2 mitigated NP-induced IL-6 release. In conclusion, NP induced ROS generation, activation of NF-κB pathway, COX-2 upregulation, and IL-6 and PGE2 secretion in TM4 cells. NP may regulate COX-2 expression via ROS-activated NF-κB pathway in Sertoli TM4 cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 1144–1152, 2015.