These authors contributed equally to this work.
Lumbrokinase from earthworm extract ameliorates second-hand smoke-induced cardiac fibrosis
Article first published online: 5 APR 2014
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 30, Issue 10, pages 1216–1225, September 2015
How to Cite
Lai, C.-H., Han, C.-K., Shibu, M. A., Pai, P. Y., Ho, T.-J., Day, C. H., Tsai, F.-J., Tsai, C.-H., Yao, C.-H. and Huang, C.-Y. (2015), Lumbrokinase from earthworm extract ameliorates second-hand smoke-induced cardiac fibrosis. Environ. Toxicol., 30: 1216–1225. doi: 10.1002/tox.21993
- Issue published online: 8 SEP 2015
- Article first published online: 5 APR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 19 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 27 JAN 2014
- Taiwan Department of Health, Clinical Trial and Research Center of Excellence. Grant Number: DOH102-TD-B-111-004
- cardiac fibrosis;
- second-hand smoke
Exposure to tobacco smoke has epidemiologically been linked to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease among nonsmokers but the associated molecular events are not well elucidated yet. When Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to second-hand tobacco cigarette smoke twice a day for a 30 days period at an exposure rate of 10 cigarettes/30 min, they showed adverse effects including reduced left ventricle weight, increased cardiac damages, deteriorated cardiac features, and cardiac fibrosis. Exposure to second-hand smoking (SHS) increased the molecular markers of cardiac fibrosis such as urokinase plasminogen activator and matrix metallopeptidases. The modulations in the protein levels were led by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), the transcription factor-specificity protein 1 (SP1), and the fibrogenic master switch-connective for epithelial–mesenchymal transition tissue growth factor there by indicating their effective role in SHS-induced myocardial infraction. Dilong, an edible earthworm extract used in Chinese medicine and its bioactive fibrinolytic enzyme product-lumbrokinase, when administered in rats, restricted the SHS exposure induced cardiac fibrosis and provided cardio-protection. The results show that lumbrokinase and dilong administration can efficiently prevent epidemiological incidence of cardiac disease among SHS-exposed nonsmokers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 1216–1225, 2015.