Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are a series of environmental contaminants that have received attention because of their possible adverse effects on wildlife and human health. Although many toxicological studies have been performed on perfluorooctanoic acid with carbon chain length C8, available toxicity data on PFCAs with longer chains are still insufficient to evaluate their hazard. A combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening study for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA; C12) was conducted in accordance with OECD guideline 422 to fill these toxicity data gaps. PFDoA was administered by gavage to male and female rats at 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg/day. The administration of PFDoA at 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/day for 42–47 days mainly affected the liver, in which hypertrophy, necrosis, and inflammatory cholestasis were noted. Body weight gain was markedly inhibited in the 2.5 mg/kg/day group, and a decrease in hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and atrophic changes in the spleen, thymus, and adrenal gland were also observed. Regarding reproductive/developmental toxicity, various histopathological changes, including decreased spermatid and spermatozoa counts, were observed in the male reproductive organs, while continuous diestrous was observed in the females of the 2.5 mg/kg/day group. Seven of twelve females receiving 2.5 mg/kg/day died during late pregnancy while four other females in this group did not deliver live pups. No reproductive or developmental parameters changed at 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg/day. Based on these results, the NOAELs of PFDoA were concluded to be 0.1 mg/kg/day for repeated dose toxicity and 0.5 mg/kg/day for reproductive/developmental toxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 1244–1263, 2015.