Environmental safety level of lead (Pb) pertaining to toxic effects on grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and Tiger perch (Terapon jarbua)



Acute and chronic bioassay toxicity test of Lead (Pb) in Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus), and Tiger perch (Terapon jarbua) was conducted. LC50 values (Lethal Concentration) from acute tests and chronic values were calculated by the geometric mean of the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) and the Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) in a study period of 30 days. This research was conducted to evaluate the quantitative relationship between toxicity test statistics and correlation between toxicant and the organisms exposed. Three test average LC50 was analyzed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and the 96 h average LC50 of M. cephalus and T. jarbua is 2.57 ± 0.47 and 2.99 ± 0.23 mg/L of Pb, respectively. Significant correlation is observed with the increased time duration and exposure concentration. The NOEC and LOEC values were calculated based on survival of test organisms for M. cephalus and T. jarbua and the values are 0.014 and 0.029 and 0.011 and 0.022 mg/L, respectively. The chronic value is found to be 0.011 mg/L for M. cephalus and 0.021 mg/L for T. jarbua. The intensity of biochemical and histological alterations increased gradually with increased Pb concentration and the exposure time. Toxicity testing is the primary step to determine the water quality safe limit on marine organisms. The outcome of the study indicates that the sensitivity of juvenile organisms to Pb, persistence of toxic effects and biomarkers as a tool capable of revealing the toxic effects of heavy metals on the environment and aquatic biota. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 24–43, 2016.